A DOE Watch Exclusive Report


The Secretive Side of Nuclear Propulsion Techniques.



DOE has many secrets it keeps and this another group.

UFO Nuclear Propulsion

DOE's Flying Saucers


The nuclear propulsion systems technology for UFO Flying Saucer designs.

By: Jim Phelps
Copyright 2004


A rather large numbers of persons these days have raised questions about specialized US nuclear propulsion methods often described as Flying Saucer Technologies. Flying Saucer designs are nothing new as the US designed the famous flying "Flap-Jack" in the 1930's that was a lenticular type saucer profile aircraft. The flying wing and designs like them make for the most efficient bomber designs and most survivable aircraft from nuclear blast effects.

As the days of the Flap-Jack yielded to the era of the nuclear power studies, new ideas occurred. We had the USAEC going into nuclear powered bombers that could stay in the air for extended periods, and were intended as part of the cold war offensives. We had the USAEC and NASA nuclear rocket programs like NERVA and real tests at the Nevada Test Site. Some of these tests had the reactors spitting fuel elements onto the landscape, as well as all kinds of fission products.

NERVA rocket designs worked by dumping liquid hydrogen onto nearly white hot reactor plates and the heated mass recoil effects supplied the thrust out a nozzle. The reactor supplied the heat in place of purely chemical reactions. However, there was a much more efficient process using the particles that generated this heat in the first place. Fission fragment ions would be much more efficient at producing silent thrusts.

When one studies the fission process one can note that about 10 percent of the energy is in the form of wavelike X-rays and gamma rays and the remainder is fission fragment ballistic energies. These fission fragments are in reality heavily charged ions that can be directed by magnetic fields. These effects were discovered and studied very early on in the Manhattan Project.

It is these heavily charged ions or fission fragments that are the basis for nuclear propulsion systems that make no noise in air. The reactors for these systems are designed for extremely high temperature operation using ceramic technologies. The fissile fuel is thinly plated onto high temperature neutron moderators arranged as many parallel plates. Using this geometry some 50 percent of the fission fragments can escape and be directed by a magnetic field.

Since these reactors operate at temperatures near red and white hot, this thins the air to less than 1/10 atmospheric, so the ions can clear the air from around the thin fuel plates and inside the reactor. This heating and ion sweeping effect establishes a clear pathway for the charged ions to leave the reactor at relativistic velocities. It is this high velocity mass recoil that supplies the lift / thrust for these direct reactor drive systems.

The high operation temperatures of these reactors boiled off much of the trapped fission products as gasses and lowered the need to shielding. The shielding only had to block the X-ray and gamma radiation going in the direction of the crew area, so the weight could be reduced. This is the essence of the secret US fission based flying saucer systems.

The ultimate of the US plans on space propulsion was called "Project Orion" and this was about a pulsed method using nuclear explosions behind a large pusher plate. It was intended to put an almost 20 story tall space capsule into a deep space mission.


The current atmospheric state of the art is this technique.

There is another class of these nuclear propulsion systems that don't use reactors as the propulsion drives directly, which are based on the separation of fission products from the bomb making process. These isotope based system use isotopes like Strontium-90, Sr-90, which is easily shielded to protect humans, yet heavily ionize the air. Sr-90 is a pure beta emission isotope that is easy to shield because they produce only low energy x-rays, and it is the key to atmospheric UFO methods.

These systems work on principles similar to MHD and that for how mercury metal pumps work. One essentially coats two large electrodes of a large magnetic cylinder by plating Sr-90 on the surface and this will ionize the air in the column intensely due to the Bremstrahlung effects of the almost pure beta electron emissions of the Sr-90 isotope. One then sets up an intense magnetic field across the cylinder purpendicular to the electric field planes using electric coils and special magnetic materials around the cylinder. Then all that is needed is the application of an electric field across the walls of the cylinder and the air that is inside the pipe will be accelerated out one end and fresh air drawn in and expelled. The process makes a silent jet like engine with laminar airflow that is nearly silent.

The Sr-90 radiation is easily shielded by the metal housing of the cylinder, and there is essentially zero radiation dose to the crew due to the beta emissions inside the metal housing.

These type isotope systems became possible after the Hanford Nuclear Weapons material plant in Hanford Washington had separated the large amount of Sr-90 needed for these type silent systems. Very small shielded reactors about the size of a small garbage can use the airflow column's metal surface of the craft as the low temperature heat sink to power these systems and increase thrust via air heating and expansion.

These systems were demonstrated to presidents like Eisenhower in the 50's and were kept secret for the silent advantage they gave to spy operations and special forces operations.

The basic technology for many of these UFO type vehicles is very simple, and the US Military has had it for decades. They were developed at Los Alamos, using ORNL reactor expertise, and home base is the DOE's Nevada Test Site Area 51.

Variations of the designs put the Sr-90 beta emitters on the outside surface of the crafts and excite this will a current to drive down the air density via heating, so the crafts will float in the same sense as the pressure differences on the bottom and top of an aircraft's wing. The effect acts somewhat like a hot air balloon's effect, and it also drastically modifies the air drag from the surface.


Note: The following articles are accounts of one of the early Los Alamos nuclear based flight testing projects that had extreme problems. This is not to be confused with the White Sands / Roswell, NM crashed experiment, which was about the health effects of atmospheric atomic bombs on aircraft flight crew survival. Roswell was a human experiment test using live human subjects with balloon supported nuclear test weapon and test vehicles. Both projects were coordinated from Los Alamos Labs, however, with different goals in mind. The human experiments were considered illegal, but were supported by Pres. Roosevelt for the Rockefeller AMA experiments in the 30s. They were given a special White House based national security classification that means above the laws of the land or the planet, the legal exclusion term used was "extra-terrestrial" experiments. Most all of them are illegal and considered war crimes type problems. These are considered illegal uses of classification.

Flying Saucer Recovery At Hart Canyon - Part 1
By Scott Ramsey
3-17-5

[Scott D. Ramsey has been researching the UFO Incident at Aztec since he first became aware of it back in 1988 while on a business trip to the four corners area. He has been aggressively tracking down witnesses and chasing any and all leads since 1990. He has traveled to 28 states in fourteen years, spent hundreds of hours in various archives, interviewed over 60 credible witnesses tied to the event; he has incurred over $200,000 dollars in expenditures during this ongoing investigation. The fruits of his labor will soon appear in his upcoming book about "The Aztec Incident."]

On March 25th, 1948, at approximately 5:00 a.m. an event took place of such great magnitude it's ramifications would forever change the lives of those involved:

Doug Nolan and Bill Ferguson, local employees of the El Paso Oil Company were called-out to a mesa, just off of Hart Canyon road, to inspect a brush fire, sighted near one of the company's drip tanks; upon arriving, the men discovered "a large disc" lying on the western side of the mesa.

"The craft was extremely large," Doug recalled. I had interviewed him last August at his home in Las Vegas while he was still recovering from a series of recent strokes. He has told this same story, over the years, to selected people, but now he wanted it on record.

Since my research began on the Aztec Incident, I have always been amazed at how this story has been mostly overlooked for fifty-six years. I first started my research after a business trip that took me to the Four Corners area. A customer I was calling on at that time had employed a large number of Navajo Indians from the local reservation; I overheard them talking about a meeting planned for the following Saturday to hunt for mule-deer near "the old crash site."

I cautiously asked them, "What old crash site?" They explained to me that a local story had been circulating in the area for years; that "a flying saucer had landed up on a mesa" off of Hart Canyon road, northeast of the town of Aztec, New Mexico, about twenty-two miles from where I was staying in Farmington, N.M.

After I returned from my business trip, I did a little digging into the old Aztec UFO story. I was shocked to discover that Frank Scully had devoted a book to the incident, in 1950. It was the second book published on the subject of UFOs after the one that Major Donald Kehoe (Retired) had written in paperback form, the previous year. After locating a copy of the book, I read with great interest about how Frank had been told of an amazing event, complete with "Top Secret" scientists and "Top Secret radar bases," and how the story soon died a quick death.

Later I read articles by J.P. Cahn, claiming that the story was a big hoax and that Scully's sources were a bunch of con men. The more I dug into the story, the more nothing really made any sense. How could a popular writer like Frank Scully have been duped by a bunch of con men and have written a book that made it to the best-seller list in the '50s?

I read more articles over time, which really gave the Aztec case a black eye; but why? It seemed almost fashionable to "discredit" anything to do with Aztec. I decided (since my travels would take me to the Four Corners for business every two to three month's) that I would do my own research on the "Aztec Incident" as I like to call it. It seems that one area in which Aztec draws criticism is through claims of the lack of eyewitnesses the event.

First, let's look at who Frank Scully was (for all those that haven't followed the Aztec history). Frank Scully was a well-known writer back in the late-Forties up through the Sixties. He wrote for many popular magazines including Variety magazine and was one of the most popular journalists of his day. (Keeping in mind that newsprint and radio were the mainstream media of that time.) Scully would be compared to the present day Dan Rather, Peter Jennings or Tom Brokaw.

In 1949 he meets Silas Newton, an oil prospector who tells of a high-ranking scientist that had allegedly worked on a recovered "flying saucer program" for the U.S. Government. Scully had been approached because of his reputation as a highly respectable journalist at the time. The "scientist," as Frank Scully later recalled, was not just one individual, but a group of eight scientists that he refers to collectively as "Dr. Gee."

Scully's book, Behind The Flying Saucers, devoted a number of pages discussing the mysterious "Dr. Gee." Many critics have alleged that Dr. Gee was actually Leo Gebauer, a close friend of Silas Newton's who leaked the story to Frank Scully. As much as Frank Scully's book was very important to the history behind the Aztec Incident, I will use other methods in providing facts behind the story. Whoever Dr. Gee was, he was very much "in the loop" concerning government projects at the time. I examined several claims made by Dr. Gee in order to see if they could be proven, fifty years later.

This has been the Aztec Story from the beginning. Amazingly the story has remained consistent for over fifty-six years; that on March 25th, 1948, a large craft measuring about 100 ft. in diameter, 6 ft. in height and showing no signs of damage, "soft landed" on a mesa above Hart Canyon road, approximately twelve-miles northeast of the town of Aztec, N.M. There were from 14 to 16 humanoid bodies, apparently charred or burned, removed from the craft. The bodies ranged from 36 - 48 inches in height. They were wearing navy-blue colored, one-piece jump suits.

The craft was first discovered by two local oil field workers, and within hours, the mesa had attracted local ranchers, other oilfield workers, two law-enforcement officers, and then, finally, the military. After the military arrived, they swore all of the witnesses to secrecy and then reminded them of their 'patriotic duty.' After the manner and tone by which the oil field workers and ranchers had been warned, they quietly left the heavily patrolled mesa and went about their business.

In order to remove the craft, an access road had to be cut and a concrete slab had to be poured for supporting a large crane, used to remove the large craft. The removal process took two weeks. Heavy equipment was also brought in from three- to-four regional military installations. The hills around the mesa were patrolled by the military and not even the oil field workers could see what was going on! Finally piece-by-piece the object was removed to some remote government facility.

=======

'Flying Saucer' Recovery At Hart Canyon - Part 2
By Scott Ramsey
3-17-5

[Scott D. Ramsey has been researching the UFO Incident at Aztec since he first became aware of it back in 1988 while on a business trip to the four corners area. He has been aggressively tracking down witnesses and chasing any and all leads since 1990. He has traveled to 28 states in fourteen years, spent hundreds of hours in various archives, interviewed over 60 credible witnesses tied to the event; he has incurred over $200,000 dollars in expenditures during this ongoing investigation. The fruits of his labor will soon appear in his upcoming book about "The Aztec Incident."]

Now, let's look at the story and start adding in some facts, eyewitnesses and some good old fashion research behind the Aztec Incident.

Dr. Gee's Claims of Top Secret Radar Bases

Both in Frank Scully's Behind The Flying Saucers, and then, Bill Steinman and Wendelle Stevens' UFO Crash At Aztec, a reference to "secret radar bases" is found. The first mention of this comes from "Dr. Gee" of Frank Scully's book. Dr. Gee claimed that the U.S. Government had three "Top Secret" radar bases in northern New Mexico that were tracking the errant UFO the morning of March 25, 1948. I also noted the same claim by Steinman and Stevens in their book as well. In July of 1998, I started looking for these alleged "Top Secret radar bases." I first investigated claims of a radar base located outside of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania that is still in existence, but is now used as an F.A.A. navigational radar system. The old base was once a Nike missile installation during the Cold War days. I soon found that they have a base "historian" at the site by the name of Pat McHugh. He was quite happy to sit with me and go over all of the old AC&W bases that he had in his files. Quickly, we both learned that New Mexico did not have a radar base that matched any of Dr. Gee's claims.

The next step was to round up a group of adventurers and seek out some old USGS maps of New Mexico, and then try to find a logical spot as to where these bases may have been. By January of 1999 we had found our first radar base. It was called the 767th AC&W, located in El Vado, New Mexico, approximately 65 miles north of Los Alamos National Laboratory. After many painstaking hours spent searching the Air Force archives, we learned that these bases were built by The Atomic Energy Commission, back in 1946, as a means of protection for Los Alamos, Sandia National Labs and Kirkland Air Force Base. The bases were later turned over to the Air Force in 1950, but were closed by 1957-as newer technology had rendered them obsolete. By the end of our sixth trip to Maxwell Air Force Base, Montgomery, Alabama, we had by then located the other two. Finally, we had identified all three of the bases described by Dr. Gee in 1949.

Finding these bases now puts a feather in Dr. Gee's hat. Now, we had most of the declassified documents naming the bases and we quickly realized that these were truly "Top Secret bases." The military had been experimenting with some very powrful, new radar technology that was being tested for the U.S. Navy, while protecting the skies above New Mexico. After pouring over thousands of pages of monthly and quarterly reports, we soon learned the importance of these bases for the '40s and '50s.

Now, back to Dr. Gee. If someone back in 1949 knew about these bases, then they were someone that was "in the know" even then. This is but one of the many claims made by Dr. Gee over fifty years ago that had merit. In the interest in keeping this article short, we will elaborate more on this in the future.

The Witnesses

Witness No: One argument against the Aztec Incident waged by critics over the years has claimed a lack of eyewitnesses; in our early research into the "Aztec Incident," we found it very difficult to speak with anyone from the town that might "go on the record"; I was finding myself returning to the Four Corners area about every six to seven weeks, just as I thought I would. Over many weekends I researched the story, looking for an eyewitness to this historical event. Finally, people slowly started to come forward.

Our first witness was K. Farley. When we interviewed Mr. Farley, he was dying of a respiratory disease. He was on bottled oxygen when we met him north of Phoenix, Arizona. As Mr. Farley later described to me during our three-hour interview, he had been in Durango, Colorado on March 25th, 1948, visiting his Aunt as he was traveling to San Diego, California; he was supposed to meet a friend just north of Aztec (New Mexico) and then continue his drive.

As he arrived early that morning at a planned pick-up spot near Cedar Hill (a small town just north of Aztec), his "friend" told him about a lot of trucks and a police car, seen going out a small dirt road just south of their position. The drivers of the vehicles seemed as though they were in a hurry according to Mr. Farley. Thinking an emergency was underway, the two of them decided to go out and see what the problem was. Mr. Farley and his friend (anonymous) arrived at the mesa, now apparently busy with oilfield workers and what appeared to have been local ranchers.

Mr. Farley and his friend moved toward the west side of the mesa to get a better look at the large disc that sat silently there. Mr. Farley said there wasn't "any noticeable damage"; the craft was "perfectly smooth on the outside, without any seams or marking except for around the middle of the craft."

Mr. Farley also described two police officers at the scene that were talking to the locals. Finally, the one officer walked over to Mr. Farley and his friend and told them that the military had been notified and that they should leave the area at once. Mr. Farley and his friend refused to leave because nobody else seemed to be listening to the officer. Mr. Farley recalls that some of the oilfield workers were climbing all over the damn thing, which he thought was dim-witted given the circumstances; some older folks started yelling at them to get the hell away from it!

Finally, later that morning according to Mr. Farley, the Military did arrive and discussed the incident individually with the people on the mesa. Mr. Farley has claimed they were "threatened with their lives" and "sworn to secrecy." Since Mr. Farley was not originally from the area, he could not help me identify who the others might have been.


Note: One can even read about some of the secretive US nuclear propulsion projects with the shape of a flying saucer in declassified reporting that has been published in Popular Mechanics Magazine. The one below is circa 2001. Note the proper name for flying saucers at Los Alamos is "lenticular aircraft" an these shape planes have been around since before WWII.

"http://www.popularmechanics.com/popmech/sci/0011STSPAM.html"

America's Nuclear Flying Saucer

A trail of secret documents reveals the startling truth about the U.S. Air Force's flying disc aircraft.

BY Jim Wilson, Illustration by Tom Freeman

In 1949, the biggest black hole in the universe wasn't in space, but across the Bering Strait. Stretching across 12 time zones, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was, as Winston Churchill would so memorably describe it, "a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma." The few things that most people knew about life behind the Iron Curtain seemed to be pieces of an incomprehensible puzzle. For the handful of intelligence experts who saw how the pieces fit, the "workers' paradise" presented a clear and present danger to the American way of life. What the intelligence community knew, and most people did not, was that in the final frantic hours of World War II, the Soviet army had hastily raided Germany's most advanced weapons research laboratories. And, on Aug. 29, 1949, only four years after Hiroshima, the technological booty from those raids turned a country whose farmers still used horse-drawn plows into a nuclear superpower.

The fireball of the communist atomic bomb cast a sinister new light on an event that previously seemed quite inconsequential. In the summer of 1945, an unusual rumor had begun to circulate within the intelligence division of the European Command. During interrogations, captured German aircraft engineers referred to an extraordinarily fast rocket plane under development at a secret base in Bavaria. Unlike the Messerschmitt Me 163 rocket planes that had begun to attack Allied bombers in the last months of the war, this aircraft had an odd-looking curved wing that blended into its fuselage. The aerodynamic advantage of this configuration had been known to American designers for more than a decade. It created more lift than a standard wing, especially at low speeds, and provided more internal capacity for carrying bombs. In the early days of the war, the U.S. Navy had briefly experimented with circular wing design for those very reasons.

Anticipating that the first generation of communist atomic bombs would be as heavy as those America had dropped on Japan, it seemed reasonable to U.S. defense planners that the Soviet air force, which then lacked a nuclear bomber, would try to adapt German disc technology. The United States was, after all, doing exactly the same thing with the V-2s and Nazi rocket scientists it had spirited away in Operation Paper Clip.

In our July 1997 cover story, "Roswell Plus 50," POPULAR MECHANICS detailed how Air Force interest in duplicating Nazi technology led to two American flying disc projects. Project Silver Bug sought to build a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft. Project Pye Wacket was to create small discs for use as air-to-air missiles. Documents declassified since then point to a third secret project, a 40-ft. "flying saucer" designed to rain nuclear destruction on the Soviet Union from 300 miles in space.

The official designation for America's nuclear flying saucer was the Lenticular Reentry Vehicle (LRV). It was designed by engineers at the Los Angeles Division of North American Aviation, under a contract with the U.S. Air Force. The project was managed out of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in Dayton, Ohio, where German engineers who had worked on rocket plane and flying disc technology had been resettled.

The LRV escaped public scrutiny because it was hidden away as one of the Pentagon's so-called "black budget" items-that is, a secret project that is incorporated into some piece of nonclassified work. On Dec. 12, 1962, security officers at Wright-Patterson classified the LRV as secret because: "It describes an offensive weapon system." The project remained classified until May 1999, when a congressionally mandated review of old documents changed the project's status as a government secret, downgrading it to public information. The Department of Defense did, however, successfully seek to have the document's distribution restricted to defense contractors. PM obtained its copy as the result of a Freedom of Information Act request.

Inside The LRV
"The operational mission design is six weeks' duration at a nominal orbital altitude of 300 nautical miles, with a crew of four men," according to the report. The weapons bay would hold "four winged weapons" that could be either launched or detached and parked on orbit. There are repeated references to the LRV launching weapons-carrying clusters.

A considerable part of the design study focuses on the details of building a 40-ft.-dia. airframe and strengthening it against the acceleration of 8 g's and wind shear it would experience during launch. However, no mention is made of the type of booster the disc would ride into space.

Click here for detail.
Illustration by John Batchelor
Most likely, the LRV would have flown atop a multistage rocket, like the Saturn booster used in the Apollo moon program. The engineering study, however, suggests a more intriguing possibility. At some point, the LRV could have been powered by one of the nuclear rockets then under development by the Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Several of these rockets were in fact built and successfully tested in Nevada. Although the government claims all of its nuclear rocket program records have been declassified, a search of the Department of Energy (DOE) human radiation experiment database indicates otherwise. PM has learned that 40 cu. ft. of records related to the human health effects of the nuclear rocket program, compiled between 1956 and 1975, are stored in a secured location-Building 1001-at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, N.M. A DOE spokesman told PM that the only reason these records would have remained classified was if they dealt with an operational military system.

Although these rockets were not called multiple independent reentry vehicles (MIRVs), they match the description of these multiple-warhead-delivery devices, which were later banned by disarmament treaties. An MIRV-equipped LRV would have been able to eliminate the war-making capabilities of the Soviet Union, China and North Korea at the push of a button.

In normal operations, the capsule would function as the LRV's flight control center. In an emergency, the crew could fire the capsule's independent 50,000-pound-thrust solid-fuel rocket motor and return to Earth. The capsule's final descent would be slowed by a parachute, much like the X-38 "lifeboat" planned for the international space station now under construction.

A textbook mission would conclude with the entire LRV returning to Earth. It would fire its nuclear or liquid-fueled main rocket to brake, then travel edge-first into the atmosphere. Its disc form would dissipate the heat of re-entry, then act as a wing. Its flattened tail structure would provide directional stability and control. A minute or so before landing, skids would extend and the LRV would settle onto a stretch of dry lakebed.

The engineering study does not describe how the LRV, which would weigh just over 17,000 pounds without its crew, weapons, fuel and stores, would then have been returned to the launch pad. One possibility, suggested by the inclusion of a high-pressure helium storage tank, is that it would have been ferried by a heavy-lift balloon, as shown in the drawing on the opposite page. While the LRV would not have had sufficient helium to inflate a balloon, the tank would have had sufficient capacity for replenishing the lift-bag to permit trips of several thousands of miles.

In 1997, as part of its effort to debunk the Roswell alien landing myth, the Air Force revealed details of several heavy-lift balloon research projects. Among those were experiments in which 15,000-pound payloads were lifted to 170,000 ft. While not specifically acknowledging the LRV by name, an Air Force spokesman conceded that during the Cold War it routinely used high-altitude balloons to lift unusual airframes for aerodynamic tests. Airframe tests of secret planes were most likely the cause of still-unexplained UFO sightings. And a balloon-lifted LRV test flight would certainly match the classic UFO reports of a silvery disc hovering motionless in the sky, then silently shooting upward.

Crash Debris
The engineering study obtained by POPULAR MECHANICS contains language that describes a re-entry heating test that, at the time, could have been accomplished by only a high-altitude drop of a flying prototype. A further indication that the LRV flew comes from a retired Air Force contractor. He tells PM he personally saw a craft fitting the description of the LRV at a Florida base that he had been visiting on unrelated business in the late 1960s. However, what is by far the most compelling evidence that the LRV, or a flying prototype, was actually built comes from Australia.

In 1975, Jean Fraser found an odd bit of honeycomb-like debris on her family's ranch south of Brisbane. The area is in the vicinity of what was then a secret Australian testing range where the British and Americans conducted some of their most secret atomic experiments. Since the LRV was to carry a small nuclear reactor to provide electricity for flight systems, it is conceivable that tests would have been conducted at this isolated location.

Local legends claim the honeycomb was debris from a flying saucer that exploded over the test range in 1966. The remaining pieces were supposedly collected by the military and returned to the United States aboard a U.S. Air Force plane. Interested in learning if the debris was extraterrestrial, Dick Smith, a Sydney businessman, arranged for the University of New South Wales to perform a chemical analysis.

The debris contained minerals commonly found in aircraft-grade fiberglass panels. Based on the university's report, the Mufon UFO Journal, the monthly magazine of the Mutual UFO Network (www.mufon.com), debunked rumors of the debris having any alien origin.

The materials recovered from the Fraser farm bear a striking resemblance to LRV engineering drawings.
Unexplained Residue
PM became interested in revisiting the Australian debris analysis when we noticed a similarity between a photograph of the mystery honeycomb and a cross-section diagram in the LRV engineering study.

We've put the two images next to each other (left). Let us know what you think.

We were also curious about two points that were raised in the university's chemical analysis, but not pursued once it was determined that the debris originated on Earth. The first has to do with the presence of small amounts of titanium. Titanium is a strong, lightweight metal used extensively in spacecraft. While some fiberglass products also contain titanium, it is not in the chemical form found in the debris.

The second curiosity has to do with chemical residues. Those found on the honeycomb were similar to those typically found in the vicinity of high-temperature chemical explosions. A possible explanation for such an explosion can be found in LRV engineering drawings. Like the German Me 163 rocket plane, the main engine of the LRV was designed to burn hypergolic fuel, highly reactive fluids that can explode on contact, releasing tremendous amounts of energy. Plans show that the LRV would have carried 9375 pounds of nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine.

In Germany, landing Me 163s were plagued by on-board fires, caused by the sloshing of a type of hypergolic fuel in mostly empty fuel tanks. According to the design study, the tanks aboard the LRV could never be completely emptied either, making accidents like those aboard Me 163s all but inevitable. LRV project managers would have been well aware of this unique danger, as one of the members of the Wright-Patterson aeronautical research team was Rudi Opitz, one of Germany's first Me 163 test pilots.

LRV documents released thus far tell only part of the story. But in time, the secrecy on progress reports, construction drawings and perhaps even operational records will expire and we will be able to tell the rest of the story. Perhaps they will reveal that the LRV remained a general's pipe dream, a multimillion-dollar paper plane that never took flight. Or they may tell the story of the most astounding adventure in the history of flight.

--------------------

LRV Specifications
Crew 4
Weapons 4 nuclear missiles
Mission Length 6 weeks
Dimensions
Diameter 40 ft.
Center 90 in.
Edges 6 in.
Wing 1548 sq. ft.
Weights
Launch 45,000 lb.
Landing 33,395 lb.
Empty 17,042 lb.
Engines
Booster Chemical/Nuclear
Main Hypergolic/Nuclear
Capsule Solid fuel
Electric Power 7 kw (thermal nuclear)
Designer North American Aviation
The four-man crew would ride a wedge-shaped capsule built inside the LRV. The capsule would divide the front portion of the disc into separate work and off-duty areas. The nuclear-tipped rockets would be stored in the rear segments.


Want to read more on nuclear propulsion systems? Check these resources:

http://www.fas.org/nuke/space/c04rover.htm

http://www.islandone.org/APC/Nuclear/00.html

http://www.islandone.org/APC/Electric/15.html

http://www.islandone.org/APC/Nuclear/10.html

http://lifesci3.arc.nasa.gov/SpaceSettlement/teacher/lessons/contributed/thomas/Adv.prop/advprop.html

http://www.fas.org/nuke/space/index.html

http://www.lascruces.com/~mrpbar/rocket.html


"http://homepage.ntlworld.com/ufophysics/ufoplasmaengine.htm"

UFO Plasma Engine and Dr. Jean-Pierre Petit's current MHD Research

"Three leading French physicists claim to have made a 'sensational breakthrough' into the mysteries of how UFOs are powered.

Dr. Jean-Pierre Petit, Dr. Claude Poher and Dr. Maurice Viton, have constructed what they term a 'UFO engine' or, The Petit-Viton Magnetohydrodynamic Motor' by using, so they say, a combination of both electromagnetic and nuclear energy.

The French scientists claim fantastic results and tremendous power output in the order of 1,000 million watts. The ufo engine was built at the Astronomical Observatory in Marseilles.

Possibly one of the most amazing developments of the French ufo engine, is that the physicists claim to have discovered how to suppress the shock waves which slow down any object moving through the air. Petit said:

"It all comes down to standard physics. An electromagnetic field can create a low pressure area under an aerodyne, or flying saucer. To this can be related the peculiar property of plasma. Plasma's magnetic field is frozen inside while it expands at unimaginable speeds, producing an electrical current. Using plasma, a belt of 'free air' can be created. The molecules of air in front of this belt are pushed aside without piling on top of each other, as they do when a normal aerofoil passes through the atmosphere fast enough to break the sound barrier.

We're not saying we've solved the problem, but we think we have cracked the principle behind the effects observed in unidentified-flying-objects".

As a matter of interest, one of the physicists who co-developed the ufo engine is now head of an official French ufo research group. Dr. Claude Poher, formerly in charge of the Astronomy Department, Scientific Systems, Projects Division and Sounding Rockets Division of the French National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), is now director of GEPAN (Groupe d'Etude des Phenomenes Aerospatiaux Non Identifies)".

[The above information was sourced from a book called "Prehistoric Germ Warfare" by Robin Collyns (1980), which gave its source as Australasian Post (from Los Angeles) dated March 31 1977 from an article on the French Ufo Motor by Bernard D. SCOTT.]

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Below are further details of other original papers and current website links.

Extracts taken from J.P. Petit's MHD webpage (see link at end)

...If you click here, you will read the Note aux Comptes rendus de l'Académie des science, published in 1975. If you don't read French, some brief explanations. Following, the three first illustrations. In figure 1, a disk-shaped machine, with an equatorial solenoid, whose alternating electric current creates an alternating magnetic field. This one (thanks to Mr Maxwell) creates an induced electric field E' which tends to create circular induced electric currents. Combining these currents J' to the instant value of the magnetic field we get radial forces (Hall effect is considered as negligible); we get a system of time-dependent radial forces J ' x B, which are directed towards the outside and towards the center, alternatively. So that the idea was as the following : Suppose we can create a non-steady ionization at the vicinity of the disk, controlled in time, we could act on the fluid, using radial centrifugal forces when they are present, of the top of the disk and radial centripetal forces, when this force is reversed, at the bottom of the disk-shaped machine [as in figure 3].

...On the next figure [figure 4], the expected induced gas flow; around our disk-shaped machine :

...The computations said that the suction effect could be very strong, strong enough to cancel any shock wave formation at the stagnation point of the machine (it moves along its axis). The technical problem was to modulate the ionization at the vicinity of the wall, in time. We imagined first a device looking like a "wolf trap" :

...Imagine a "small size" conical hole, in the wall and, along its axis, a "pin". At the junction of the cone-plane, a circular electrode (anode). The central electrone (pin like) is charged negatively. Then an electric discharge forms in the surrounding air, as shown above. The subsequent magnetic field, associated to this electric discharge, tends to push the free electrons away and to give them energy. We thought that it could produce short-lifetime negative ions in air, making possible MHD interaction during the lifetime of such ions. In a well equiped lab such research could have been carried out, but we had none. Since 1973 I was in an astronomical observatory, which is not an optimum place to perform plasma physics experiments.

...Anyway, at the end of the seventies, some interesting aspects of the machine were discovered. Good plasma specialists know that magnetic pressure tends to blow away electric discharges. We experienced that in low pressure air experiments. The solution was rapidly found. Instead of creating a B field whose maximum value was in the symmetry plane (created by a single equatorial coil), we decided to use three, a big one and two smaller, as shown on the next figure [see figure 5]:

...To the left of this figure is the axis of the machine. At the top-right is the schematic disposition of the three coils, showing the way the electric currents flow in. On the [main] figure, the magnetic lines. We see that the maximum B surface is close to a portion of a cone (containing the circles of two coils). The gray [shaded] area represents the confinement volume, in which the plasma tends to lie. Immediate success, experimentally. Then the wall of the machine, to optimize the MHD interaction, must be orthogonal to the magnetic lines. Finally, this is the typical aspect of our electrodeless MHD aerodyne, using induction phenomena and pulsed ionization, optimized on MHD grounds :

...You see why we got some problems with the scientific community, army, politicians, and so on. ...Short-duration ionization was difficult to manage.

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Cold gas MHD experiments.

...But, recently, a new idea came, which is summarized in the following figure :

...The walls of the model are made of teflon. In the two teflon shells, coils are imbedded (the equatorial one and the two "confinement coils"). Two klystrons will be used, connected to two separate wave guides. These two are shown on the figure. They are coaxial brass cylinders. When one is in operation, the second one is out, and so on. Mingled thin brass lamellas (red) act as a diffuser and spray microwaves. The brass plate located in the plane of symmetry prevents the microwaves used from ionizing the air on the opposite side of the machine. In the next figure we show the model when the microwaves flow along the central channel, and are diffused by the thin mingled brass lamellas, in the top part, then cross the teflon and create a thin layer of ionized air. 3 GHz microwaves are optimum to ionize atmospheric pressure air, and ionized gaz absorbs microwaves. For this reason the ionization will be confined in a thin layer.

For more details of current research projects in both MHD and Cosmology (see Jean-Pierre Petit's MHD and his thought provoking Cosmology websites).

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Although the technology here is vastly different to that described by Bob Lazar, one might nevertheless notice a similarity in the concept of Lazar's anti-matter wave tube and his microwave analogy (see Lazar Gravity page).